A cappella - vocal music without accompaniment
A tempo - return te the original tempo
Accelerando - becoming faster
Adagio - slow
Agitato - excited
Allargando - slowing clown
Allegretto - fast; a little slower than allegro
Andante - walking tempo (mm--72)
Andantino - a little slower than andante
Animato - with spirit, animated
Attacca - continue immediately
Bewegt - animated
Cadenza - a passage in the style of an improvisation placed near the end of a solo work
Calando - gradually dimmishing in volume
Calando - gradually dimmlishing in volume
Calore - warmly
Cantabile - in a singing style
Capriccioso - in a humorous style
Con - with
Con brio - with spirit
Con fuoco - with fîre
Con gusto - with zest
Con moto - with motion
Con sordino (Con sord.) - with a mute
Crescendo - gradually get louder
Decrescendo - gradually get softer
Diminuendo - gradually get softer
Divisi (Div.) - used when a group of instruments is divided into smaller divided group
Dolce - sweetly
Doloroso - sorrowful
Elision - a simultaneous phrase ending and beginning
Espressivo - express vely
Fermata - hold longer than normal duration
Fortissimo - very loud Forte - loud Fine - the end
Forzando or Forzato - accented Giocoso - humorous
Grand Pause (G.P.) - an extended rest
Hemiola - simultaneous triple and duple rhythms
Jubiloso - jubilant
Laisser vibre - te let vibrate
Langsam - slowly
Largamente - broadly
Larghetto - somewhat faster than largo
Largo - very slow
Lebhaft - lively
Legato - te be played very smoothly
Lento - slow
L'istesso tempo - at the same tempo
Loco - (used after 8va) return te normal octave
Ma - but
Marcato - marked, accented
Massig - moderately
Mezzo - half, moderately
Misterioso - mysteriously
Moderato - moderate tempo
Morendo - dying away
Opus (Op.) - work; a number used to designate the chronological position of a work within a composeres output
Ossia - also; an alternate version of a passage
Ostinato - a repeated melodic and/ or rhythmic motive
Ottava (8va) - octave; to be performed an octave higher or lower than written
Parlando - in a spoken style
Pesante - heavily
Peu à peu - little by little
Più - more
Poco a poco - little by little
Portamento - gliding from one note to another
Prestissimo - as fast as possible
Primo, secondo - first, second
Pronto - swiftly
Quasi - as if; like
Religioso - in a solen-m or religions style
Ritardando (rit., ritard.) - gradually slowing down
Ritenuto - slowing down immediately
Rubato - with a free pulse
Segue - proceed immediately
Semplice - simple
Sempre - always
Senza - without
Sforzando or Sforzato - forced; with a strong accent
Simile - continue in a similar style
Sostenuto - sustained
Sotto voce - in a soft voice
Spirito - spirited
Staccato - detached; played short
Subito - suddenly
Tacet - do net play
Tema - theme
Tenuto - hold note for its full value
Texture - the basic fabric of a section of a composition
Troppo - ton
Tutti - all
Un peu, Un poco - a little
Unison - everyone performs the same melody
Vigoroso - with vigor
Vivace, Vivo - lively
Voce - voice
Volti subito (V.S.) - tom the page quickly
-etto - less
-issimo - more


Largo - very slow (mm=40-50)
Larghetto - less slow (mm=44-54)
Lento - slow (mm=50-60)
Adagio - slowly (mm=54-66)
Andantino - slower than andante (mm=60-76)
Andante - walking tempo (mm=66-84)
Moderato - moderate tempo (mm=76-96)
Allegretto - slightly fast (mm=84-120)
Allegro - fast (mm=96-144)
Presto - very fast (mm=120-184)
Prestissimo - as fast as possible (mm=144-208)